The meter which is used for measuring the energy utilises by the electric load is known as the energy meter. The energy is the total power consumed and utilised . Objectives. • To understand the basic construction and different components of a single phase induction type energy meter. • Explain basic principle and. Detailed information and tools for energy meter interfaces can be More information about approvals of energy meters for billing purposes are given on the.
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The energy meter is an electrical measuring device, which is used to record developed electronic energy meter is also available in the market but in view of. PDF | It is undoubtedly that in the future, energy would cost more as the The idea of designing the Digital Household Energy Meter is due to the basis that it. PDF | The energy metering technology used presently in Nigeria is not highly reliable and requires substantial labour and time to read.
The interaction of the flux and the disc induces the deflecting torque. When the devices consume power, the aluminium disc starts rotating, and after some number of rotations, the disc displays the unit used by the load.
The number of rotations of the disc is counted at particular interval of time. The disc measured the power consumption in kilowatt hours. Braking system — The permanent magnet is used for reducing the rotation of the aluminium disc.
The aluminium disc induces the eddy current because of their rotation. The eddy current cut the magnetic flux of the permanent magnet and hence produces the braking torque.
This braking torque opposes the movement of the disc, thus reduces their speed. The permanent magnet is adjustable due to which the braking torque is also adjusted by shifting the magnet to the other radial position. Registration Counting Mechanism — The main function of the registration or counting mechanism is to record the number of rotations of the aluminium disc.
Their rotation is directly proportional to the energy consumed by the loads in the kilowatt hour. The rotation of the disc is transmitted to the pointers of the different dial for recording the different readings. The reading in kWh is obtained by multiply the number of rotations of the disc with the meter constant. The figure of the dial is shown below. Working of the Energy Meter The energy meter has the aluminium disc whose rotation determines the power consumption of the load.
The disc is placed between the air gap of the series and shunt electromagnet.
Electronic Energy Meter Based on a Tunnel Magnetoresistive Effect (TMR) Current Sensor
The shunt magnet has the pressure coil, and the series magnet has the current coil. The pressure coil creates the magnetic field because of the supply voltage, and the current coil produces it because of the current. The interaction of the eddy current and the magnetic field causes torque, which exerts a force on the disc. Thus, the disc starts rotating. The force on the disc is proportional to the current and voltage of the coil.
The permanent magnet controls Their rotation. The permanent magnet opposes the movement of the disc and equalises it on the power consumption.
In such events the energy meter warns the server of the corresponding bypassing through SMS.
Upon receiving SMS, the server blocks the energy meter Figure 5. Shorting the phase line. The authority can take legal action against the consumer. Protection against Whole Meter Bypassing In extreme cases the whole meter can be bypassed as shown in Fig. As a result the meter will detect no energy consumption. To prevent this kind of theft, our proposed energy meter takes several steps.
The output of PT2 is converted to 5V dc and is given to the interrupt pin of the microcontroller. When the whole meter is bypassed PT2 detects no voltage and an interrupt is sent to the microcontroller.
Theenergy meter then requests the power status of the area, where the meter is located, to the server.
Ifthe server confirms that the power supply is available in that area, then the meter immediately disconnects the load and informs Figure 6. Disconnecting the neutral line. During the whole operation backup from a rechargeable battery is available.
Control of Electricity Theft using Observer Meter Electricity pilfering may occur in the form of unregistered load as shown in Fig. Also radio frequency devices may be used to influence the accuracy of the device . There also exits many named and unnamed engineered ways for electricity theft.
These types of theft cannot be detected and controlled using single household meter. To detect such unaccounted theft, an observer meter is used in the proposed system. The observer meter shown in Fig. In that case, this will measure the energy disconnect their corresponding loads.
The observer meter will consumed by all the flats in that apartment building.
The signal the harmonic generator to introduce dangerous household meters inform the observer meter of their harmonics into the household line. Since the genuine loads are corresponding measured units through SMS.
If the two values separated, the harmonics will only affect the unregistered loads.
SMA ENERGY METER
Since, individual meter readings are available unregistered appliances thus punishing the illegal consumers to the central meter, it can find out the possible households where theft has occurred on the basis of zero or low energy .
However, genuine consumers can suffer in this approach consumption. The central meter reports the possible locations in the sense that their load consumptions will be interrupted for of theft to the server using SMS.
The authority can send few seconds during the use of harmonics. This interruption technical staffs to check the reported households and can detect may not be comfortable to all consumers. Therefore, this the particular dishonest consumer.
In addition to this, the concept of introducing dangerous harmonics can be used . Protection against Tampering Consumers or professional ones may try to open the energy meter and tamper it to show low or no energy consumptions. One terminal of each lever  T.
In  A. If Detection, pp. Bandim, J. Alves Jr.
Pinto Jr. Souza, M. Magalhaes, and F. Distribution Conference and Exposition, vol. In this paper, we have proposed a prepaid energy meter  S. Depuru, L. Wang, and V. Nagi, K. Yap, S.
Tiong, S. Ahmed, and A.
Construction of Energy Meter
In 6, Nov. Nizar and Z. Therefore, utilities can take Systems Conference and Exposition, pp. Pasdar and S.
Barua, N. Mohammad, A. Abbas, and M. Mohammad, M.In Europe, Asia, Africa and most other locations, single phase is common for residential and small commercial customers. A common method of tampering on mechanical disk meters is to attach magnets to the outside of the meter. Since it is typically not cost effective to store significant amounts of electricity during a period of low demand for use during a period of high demand, costs will vary significantly depending on the time of day.
There are various groups, such as the Standard Transfer Specification STS association, which promote common standards for prepayment metering systems across manufacturers.
Moving System — The moving system is the aluminium disc mounted on the shaft of the alloy. Thus, the disc starts rotating.
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